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12b-1 fee. A mutual fund fee, named for the SEC rule that permits it, used to pay distribution costs, such as compensation to financial advisers for initial and ongoing assistance. If a fund has a 12b-1 fee, it will be disclosed in the fee table of a fund’s prospectus.
The Heckscher-Ohlin Model with 2 factors, 2 goods, and 2 countries.
401(k) plan. An employer-sponsored retirement plan that enables employees to make tax-deferred contributions from their salaries to the plan. See also defined contribution plan.
403(b) plan. An employer-sponsored retirement plan that enables employees of universities, public schools, and nonprofit organizations to make tax-deferred contributions from their salaries to the plan.
457 plan. An employer-sponsored retirement plan that enables employees of state and local governments and other tax-exempt employers to make tax-deferred contributions from their salaries to the plan.
529 plan. An investment program, offered by state governments, designed to help pay future qualified higher education expenses. States offer two types of 529 plans: prepaid tuition programs allow contributors to establish an account in the name of a student to cover the cost of a specified number of academic periods or course units in the future at current prices; and college savings plans allow individuals to contribute to an investment account to pay for a student’s qualified higher education expenses.
The value of a project if the project's assets were sold externally; or alternatively, its opportunity value if the assets were employed elsewhere in the firm.
ABC method of inventory control
Method that controls expensive inventory items more closely than less expensive items.
The ability to produce a good at lower cost, in terms of labor, than another country. An absolute advantage exists when a nation or other economic region is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than a second nation or region.
The rule in bankruptcy or reorganization that claims of a set of claim holders must be paid, or settled, in full before the next, junior, set of claim holders may be paid anything.
Absorption and balance of trade
Total demand for goods and services by all residents (consumers, producers, and government) of a country (as opposed to total demand for that country's output). The balance of trade is equal to income minus absorption.
Methods of depreciation that write off the cost of a capital asset faster than under straight-line depreciation.
A time draft that is accepted by the drawee. Accepting a draft means writing accepted across its face, followed by an authorized personÃ¢Â€Â™s signature and the date. The party accepting a draft incurs the obligation to pay it at maturity.
The process of adding a country to an international agreement, such as the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), WTO (World Trade Organization), EU (European Communities), or NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).
In the balance of payments, a transaction that is a result of actions taken officially to manage international payments; in contrast with autonomous transaction. Thus official reserve transactions are accommodating, as may be short-term capital flows that respond to expectations of intervention.
Accounting (translation) exposure
Changes in a corporationÃ¢Â€Â™s financial statements as a result of changes in currency values. The change in the value of a firmÃ¢Â€Â™s foreign-currency-denominated accounts due to change in exchange rates.
Amounts of money owed to a firm by customers who have bought goods or services on credit. A current asset, the accounts receivable account is also called receivables.
Amounts owed but not yet paid for wages, taxes, interest, and dividends. The accrued expenses account is a short-term liability.
Acid-test (quick) ratio
Current assets less inventories divided by current liabilities. It shows a firm's ability to meet current liabilities with its most liquid (quick) assets.
Acquisition of assets
In an acquisition of assets, one firm acquires the assets of another company. None of the liabilities supporting that asset are transferred to the purchaser.
Acquisition of stock
In an acquisition of stock, one firm buys an equity interest in another.
In a merger or acquisition, the difference between the purchase price and the pre-acquisition value of the target firm.
Act of State Doctrine
This doctrine says that a nation is sovereign within its own borders and its domestic actions may not be questioned in the courts of another nation.
Active fund management
An investment approach that actively shifts funds either between asset classes (i.e. asset allocation) or between individual securities (i.e. security selection).
In the U.S. tax code, income from an active business as opposed to passive investment income.
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